46. Since by man came death

Part Three of Messiah is a thanksgiving for the triumph of the Redeemer over death. It begins with the beautiful soprano solo, "I know that my Redeemer liveth" which is related to and is followed by this, the first of only three choruses in the final part of Messiah. The text to this chorus is from St. Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians, 15:21-22, where Adam is characterized as being made of dust, and the second Adam, Christ, is the life-giving spirit. The opening measures were considerably revoiced by Handel in the autograph score, as were the second set of a cappella measures (17-22). This shows he gave consideration to the sonorities and the emotional impact of this text. Contrasting with these Renaissance-like a cappella moments are two uplifting, joyous accompanied passages.
The chorus is extremely powerful. Part III has a smaller percentage of choral music than the first two parts, and the first two of the three choruses are relatively short, because Handel saved the chorus for the final movement, where they have a tour de force. But the effect of this chorus is remarkable when it is performed with sensitivity and sincerity.

Theme 1 – ALL, measures 1-7 (dark, subdued, legato – little or no vibrato)

Since by man came death – lots of hummy M and N, hard C in “came”, d and th in “death”,
“death” with a slight emotional tinge, “th” in death on first beat of measure 4

S(IH)nce b(UH)(EE) m(EH)n c(EH)(EE)m d(EH)th

All, measures 17-22 (dark, subdued, legato - little or no vibrato)

For as in Adam all die - lots of hummy M, L, hard D; imagine commas after “For” and “Adam” –
Slight pause after “For” and a breath after “Adam”

Theme 2 – BASS, measures 7-16 (bright, louder, detached)

By man came also the resurrection of the dead – emphasize M, N, L; flip “r”s in “resurrection”;
Be sure to sound the final “d” in “dead”

B(UH)(EE) m(EH)n c(EH)(EE)m (AW)l – s(AW)(OO) th(oo) 
r(EH) – z(oo) – r(EH)k – sh(UH)n (UH)v th(oo) d(EH)d

BASS emphasized – all other parts very subordinate

Even so in Christ shall all be made alive – strong V, N, L, D; eighth note rest after Christ; distinct V in “alive” exactly on beat 2 of measure 32 and beat 3 of 34

(EE) – vn s(AW)(OO) (IH)n Chr(UH)(EE)st 
sh(EH)ll (AW)ll b(EE) m(EH)(EE)d (UH)l(UH(EE)v

contrast the different sections as a matter of “life and death”
Notes at the beginning – all you get is the A in the bass continuo – key change from A Major to a minor
How do you find your notes at measure 17?
No rit. at end and at full volume to contrast with next recitative.